Parts of a Computer and Their Functions

Computers are complex machines with many different parts that all work together to allow the machine to function. Some of these parts are more important than others, and each has a specific function that helps the computer run. In this article, we will look at the different parts of a computer and what they do.


The motherboard is the computer’s main part responsible for all of the internal connections to the different parts. It is made up of a large number of circuit boards that connect to form a single unit. These boards are known as chipsets, and each chipset has its function.


Types of motherboards include the following: ATX, Micro ATX, BTX, Pico BTX, LPX, and Mini ITX.


The most important part of a computer is the central processing unit or CPU. The CPU is responsible for performing all of the calculations and tasks that the computer needs to do. It is also responsible for handling input and output operations. This part is also known as a Processor. 


The storage component is the hard drive and Solid-state drive. It is where all of the computer’s information is stored. This includes The user’s documents, pictures, music, and other programs that are used on the computer. 

The basic difference between a solid-state drive and a hard drive is that a solid-state drive uses little power and is faster than a hard drive. 


Ram is a memory chip that is used in computers to store data. RAM, short for Random Access Memory, can be referred to as the computer’s working memory. It runs the operating system and programs and stores static data like pictures, documents, and videos. 

Types of RAM 

There are two types of RAM: dynamic and static RAM. 

Dynamic RAM (DRAM) is a type of memory that can be accessed faster than other types of RAM. It holds data in electrical charges, which change as the computer responds to signals from the processor. 

Static RAM (SRAM) is a type of memory that does not require power to remain in a constant state. Data stored on SRAM is lost when the computer is turned off. However, SRAM can be hardwired to the processor, which means that data stored in the memory is not lost when the computer is turned off.

PC case 

A computer case is a plastic or metal box that houses all of the components of the computer. It usually has a power supply and other circuitry that allows the computer to function. 

The case is necessary as it protects the computer’s internal components, acts as a heat sink to dissipate heat from the CPU and allows airflow inside the computer. 

Graphics card

A video card is a small circuit board inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard. The card has connectors for data, power, and video signals. It is directly connected to the monitor through an internal cable. It takes the place of other cards that would have been placed on the motherboard, such as the CPU, memory, and video card.

Sound card

This small circuit board plugs into the motherboard and takes the place of other cards, such as the video card, audio I/O, and modem. It has connectors for sound signals and power. It is directly connected to the speakers and headphone jacks on the computer.

Integrated circuit (IC)

An IC is a chip with many circuits built into one tiny package. There are many types of IC, including microprocessors, memory chips, power supplies, and sensors.

Power supply (PSU) 

A power supply is a computer component that converts AC power from the wall outlet into DC power to operate the entire system. The PSU converts AC to DC using transformers and capacitors. 


The monitor is a display that shows the computer system’s desktop, including the desktop icons. The monitor also has special controls for adjusting the screen’s brightness, turning on and off the backlight, and changing colors. It is connected to a video adapter card in your computer.


A mouse is a pointing device that uses sensors to detect the position of its center in three dimensions. It can be moved with the hand, and clicks are generated by pressing buttons on the mouse.


A keyboard is a device for inputting text, numbers, letters, and symbols. It has keys pressed to generate the characters and special keys for punctuation or functions such as a tab. The keyboard is attached to a computer system utilizing a cable.


A printer is an output device that produces hard copies of documents or images. A printer is a device that attaches to a computer. It receives information from a computer and produces hard copies of that information on paper.


A speaker is a device used to generate audible sound. It is attached to a computer using cables or a wireless connection. The user hears the sound it produces.


A scanner is a device used to take hard copies of documents. It is attached to a computer through cables. The document that has been scanned can be stored on the computer and later viewed or printed.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do I connect my computer to a printer?

You can connect your computer and printer by cable if you have a local area network (LAN) or a wireless network. Use the cable that came with the printer. If you have a wireless network, connect your computer to the printer using a wireless connection. I have a wireless connection.

What is the difference between RAM and ROM?

RAM is used to store data while the computer is running temporarily. ROM is used to store data permanently.

What is the function of a motherboard?

A motherboard is the main circuit board that connects a computer’s components.

John is a tech writer who specializes in laptop and PC hardware. He has been writing about technology for over 3 years, and his work has been featured in major publications such as Thrive Global.